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Research breakthroughs

Name of the project

Distributed reconfigurable interferometric system for comprehensive studies of cosmic radiation

Key idea (slogan) of the project

Combining detectors in near space for a qualitative increase of measuring characteristics

Partner organization

University of Cambridg

Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University Scobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute

National Research University “Higher School of Economics” (HSE)

Federal State Autonomous Institution of Higher Education «Novosibirsk National Research State University»

Federal State autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Federal State autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education Samara University

The Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education KAZAN NATIONAL RESEARCH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY named after A.N.TUPOLEV KAI Kazan Quantum

 

Academic supervisor of the project

Stolyarov Vladislav Alexandrovich (h=32 Scopus,h=49 WoS)

 

Description of the project

Dark Matter is an unexplored part of the Universe with a share of the energy balance of about 23%. The project investigates the fundamental problem of identifying of internal structure of dark matter by testing the Space model of axion electrodynamics, which will greatly expand the existing understanding of the universe and allow us to solve new application monitoring tasks in various industries. High breakthrough technology in this project is a reconfigurable network of distributed sensors of magnetic and electric fields placed on space and air­based platform for the definition of axion­induced electric fields in the near­Earth space. The project addresses the problem of constructing a distributed radiophysics airborne platform for multi purpose monitoring. This platform has significant potential in comparison with modern radar devices of various types: the use of UAVs together even at the height of several hundred meters allows us a radically increase resolution, noise immunity and sensitivity of measurements. It is planned to create a distributed dynamically configurable UAV system that provides surround antenna aperture of required configuration, that lets you begin to develop payloads for space distributed platform and this is a new word in the establishment of a space­based radio telescopes. Airborne complexes lets us to start a broadband precise remote sensing of Earth surface layers by radio waves ranges from centimeter to millimeter in the entire surveillance area. Using the interferometric system magnetometric type in turn gives information about the location and characteristics of magnetic anomalies in the earth’s crust, allowing you to define the structure of the underlying surface and mineral deposits, even at depths of several hundred meters. As a payload for the platform we assume to use microwave quantum radio receiver based on the high­Q resonators and microwave­optic interface. The spectrometric complex will be created on the basis of microwave quantum radio receiver for monitoring of cosmological weak signals, this will allow us to work out methods of analysis of the CMB spectrum. Increased spectral selectivity and sensitivity will bring an experimental equipment to a new level, which will also be used to solve practical problems of quantum processing and communications.

Approaches to the implementation of the project

Axion­electrodynamic approach is theoretically developed scientific direction, experimental study of which is possible through the registration of new electromagnetic effects induced by axion fields, and is based on the measurement of the correlation of the electric and magnetic fields at different points in space­time, for what and requires a system of synchronized highly sensitive detectors distributed in space. Each module of a distributed interferometric system has detectors of direction and intensity of a local electric and magnetic fields. Detecting correlated variations in the parallel components of the electric and magnetic fields will be evidence of the existence of the axion­photon interactions. Distributed airborne platform consists of a reconfigurable system of small UAV­satellites with exchangeable antenna modules, launched from a massive UAV­carrier of copter type. This scheme allows for a distributed reconfigurable antenna array on the UAV­satellites with data processing center on the UAV­carrier, provides a significant edge over the data rate, beamforming and adjustment for different tasks of the system structure. In the case of a space­based platform is implemented as a distributed group of nano­satellites controlled from one microsatellite, which ensures stable communication with the control center. The configuration of the satellites in orbit can be chosen arbitrarily in connection with a fully dynamically formed aperture oppening of the equivalent antenna system. Payload is implemented within the COTS concept and carried out with the participation of industrial partners. The proposed approach of remote sensing focused on providing precise sensing of the Earth’s surface and near­surface layers in a wide range of frequencies in the entire surveillance area (up to several tens of sq. Km at the same time). Development of magnetometrical interferometer based on UAV groups will be provided, allowing to localize the location and intensity of the magnetic anomalies in the test volume to find deposits of valuable minerals and determine the structure of the near­surface layers. Creating a highly sensitive instrument for detecting microwave radiation is based on the use of original patented system of interacting high­Q microwave resonator compact that allows the detection of very weak electromagnetic fields with high optimum process control quantum transformation and modulation. On the basis of working out of the universal scheme will be carried out works on the development and testing of complex measuring equipment.

 

 Achieving of global leadership (excellence), as one of the project results

Leadership will be achieved in cosmology, dark matter and systems of inertial navigation, that opens the possibility of using methods axion interferometry and highly precise autonomous navigation applications in the fields of science, industry and communications. A project to create a complete platform with dynamic configuration own structure and aperture of antenna air­based and space­based ­ the first in the world. Construction of low­cost radar with a large base is a breakthrough in the field of multi­radar monitoring. The novelty of the radioastronomy receiver is achieved due to the use of high­Q resonators, microwave­optical interface and the quantum detector. This all can reduce the thermal noise of the receiver. breakthrough technological advantages here is the possibility quickly remote parametric control the receiver frequency and band.

 

Significance, relevance and academic novelty of the project

 

The project’s contribution to world science is the discovery of dark matter particles and clarification of scenarios evolution of the Universe. The novelty of the project is the change of the concept from individual localized axion detectors to a distributed system axion detectors. It will be based on an analysis of correlations in Magneto­Electric clusters in near­Earth space, which will significantly increase the accuracy of detection methods. The existing air and space­based platforms are performed on the basis of a limited number of stratospheric devices or massive satellites. Approach with a fully distributed dynamically reconfigurable aperture in space and time, has not been used because of the need for accurate phase synchronization and subcentimeter accuracy the relative orientation of the elements.  Our industrial partners are building a unique small­sized UAV, microsatellites and profile target general purpose load.  In KFU laboratories we solved the problem of precision positioning, navigation, multi­channel data transfer and synthesis of small emitters, and full antenna apertures on the basis of distributed systems. The specified a set of previous research allows us to apply our knowledge for the creation of the world’s first distributed system of fully air­launched on the basis of groups swarming UAVs and space­based. Payload will be radio telescope and radio antennas.  Existing approaches for remote sensing of Earth provide observation with an air or space from undistributed platform. Building a distributed platform for research with a large volume of equivalent aperture aperture provides a fundamentally new opportunities for observation of detail and at the same time study of the entire observed surface  Suggested in project quantum radiosystem is a set of high­Q resonators, associated with common waveguide. This scheme allows us to adjust frequency resonators restructuring.  We are planning to increase the sensitivity of the equipment by developing methods for a significant increase in the quality factor resonators (by adjusting the interaction of coupled resonators) and ensuring coherent amplification of the received signal by several interacting resonators.  On this basis, the scheme will be implemented in effective conversion of microwave radiation in the optical radiation with use of the resonant interaction with the system of atoms placed in a high­Q resonator.

Relevance and significance of the project in technologies

Creation of radiophysics platform and development interferometric methods axion investigation will change possible application of cosmology and remote sensing of Earth that can be used in all areas of industry. Increasing the sensitivity of radio receivers and control the radiation pattern will increase the efficiency of remote sensing of the Earth and reduce the power of radio transmission systems, which is especially important for space communications, navigation. Modification of existing technologies will run in parallel with the project due to the high involvement of industrial partners in the project. However, the results of the project will provide new information to fundamental properties of the universe, will make a small step in the way of identifying the nature of dark matter, to take a look into the era of the creation of the universe (by studying the spectrum of the CMB)